|On This Day|
Today is 22 July 2017, and this is some of what happened.
Events838 - Battle of Anzen: The Byzantine emperor Theophilos suffers a heavy defeat by the Abbasids.
1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1209 - Massacre at Béziers: The first major military action of the Albigensian Crusade.
1298 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk: King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeat William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town of Falkirk.
1456 - Ottoman wars in Europe: Siege of Belgrade: John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, defeats Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire
1484 - Battle of Lochmaben Fair: A 500-man raiding party led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas are defeated by Scots forces loyal to Albany's brother James III of Scotland; Douglas is captured.
1499 - Battle of Dornach: The Swiss decisively defeat the army of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1587 - Roanoke Colony: A second group of English settlers arrives on Roanoke Island off North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony.
1686 - Albany, New York is formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan.
1706 - The Acts of Union 1707 are agreed upon by commissioners from the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, which, when passed by each countries' Parliaments, led to the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1793 - Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean becoming the first recorded human to complete a transcontinental crossing of North America.
1796 - Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio "Cleveland" after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
1797 - Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Battle between Spanish and British naval forces during the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Battle, Rear-Admiral Nelson is wounded in the arm and the arm had to be partially amputated.
1802 - Emperor Gia Long conquers Hanoi and unified Viet Nam, which had experienced centuries of feudal warfare.
1805 - Napoleonic Wars: War of the Third Coalition: Battle of Cape Finisterre: An inconclusive naval action is fought between a combined French and Spanish fleet under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve of Spain and a British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder.
1812 - Napoleonic Wars: Peninsular War: Battle of Salamanca: British forces led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain.
1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Atlanta: Outside Atlanta, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.
1894 - The first ever motor race is held in France between the cities of Paris and Rouen. The fastest finisher was the Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, but the 'official' victory was awarded to Albert Lemaître driving his 3 hp petrol engined Peugeot.
1916 - Preparedness Day Bombing: In San Francisco, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a parade, killing ten and injuring 40.
1933 - Aviator Wiley Post returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York, NY, completing the first solo flight around the world in 7 days, 18 hours and 49 minutes.
1934 - Outside Chicago's Biograph Theater, "Public Enemy No. 1" John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.
1937 - New Deal: The United States Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.
1942 - The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.
1942 - Holocaust: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins.
1943 - World War II: Allied forces capture the Italian city of Palermo.
1944 - The Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes its manifesto, starting the period of Communist rule in Poland
1946 - King David Hotel bombing: A Zionist underground organisation, the Irgun, bombs the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, site of the civil administration and military headquarters for Mandatory Palestine, resulting in 91 deaths.
1962 - Mariner program: Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.
1963 - Crown Colony of Sarawak gains self-governance.
1976 - Japan completes its last reparation to the Philippines for war crimes committed during imperial Japan's conquest of the country in the Second World War.
1977 - Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.
1983 - Martial law in Poland is officially revoked.
1991 - Jeffrey Dahmer is arrested in Milwaukee after police discover human remains in his apartment.
1992 - Near Medellín, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.
1993 - Great Flood of 1993: Levees near Kaskaskia, Illinois rupture, forcing the entire town to evacuate by barges operated by the Army Corps of Engineers.
1997 - The second Blue Water Bridge opens between Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.
2003 - Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein's sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay's 14-year-old son, and a bodyguard.
2005 - Jean Charles de Menezes is killed by police as the hunt begins for the London Bombers responsible for the 7 July 2005 London bombings and the 21 July 2005 London bombings.
2011 - Norway is the victim of twin terror attacks, the first being a bomb blast which targeted government buildings in central Oslo, the second being a massacre at a youth camp on the island of Utøya.
2013 - A series of earthquakes in Dingxi, China, kills at least 89 people and injures more than 500 others.
2015 - Three people die and 17 are injured in a collision between a Pendolino train and a lorry that occurred near Studénka, north Moravia, in the Czech Republic
2016 - Nine people die and more are injured in a shooting in Munich, Germany.
Births1210 - Joan of England, Queen of Scotland (died 1238)
1478 - Philip I of Castile (died 1506)
1510 - Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence (died 1537)
1535 - Catherine Stenbock, Swedish wife of Gustav I of Sweden (died 1621)
1559 - Lawrence of Brindisi, Italian priest and saint (died 1619)
1621 - Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician, Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom (died 1683)
1651 - Ferdinand Tobias Richter, Austrian organist and composer (died 1711)
1702 - Alessandro Besozzi, Italian oboe player and composer (died 1775)
1711 - Georg Wilhelm Richmann, German-Russian physicist and academic (died 1753)
1713 - Jacques-Germain Soufflot, French architect, designed the Panthéon (died 1780)
1733 - Mikhail Shcherbatov, Russian philosopher and historian (died 1790)
1755 - Gaspard de Prony, French mathematician and engineer (died 1839)
1784 - Friedrich Bessel, German mathematician and astronomer (died 1846)
1839 - Jakob Hurt, Estonian theologist and linguist (died 1907)
1844 - William Archibald Spooner, English priest and scholar (died 1930)
1848 - Adolphus Frederick V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (died 1914)
1849 - Emma Lazarus, American poet and educator (died 1887)
1856 - Octave Hamelin, French philosopher (died 1907)
1862 - Cosmo Duff-Gordon, Scottish fencer (died 1931)
1863 - Alec Hearne, English cricketer (died 1952)
1878 - Janusz Korczak, Polish pediatrician and author (died 1942)
1882 - Edward Hopper, American painter and etcher (died 1967)
1884 - Odell Shepard, American poet and politician, 66th Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut (died 1967)
1886 - Hella Wuolijoki, Estonian-Finnish author (died 1954)
1887 - Gustav Ludwig Hertz, German physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1975)
1888 - Kirk Bryan, American geologist and academic (died 1950)
1888 - Selman Waksman, Jewish-American biochemist and microbiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1973)
1889 - James Whale, English actor and director (died 1957)
1890 - Rose Kennedy, American philanthropist (died 1995)
1892 - Jack MacBryan, English cricketer and field hockey player (died 1983)
1893 - Jesse Haines, American baseball player and coach (died 1978)
1893 - Karl Menninger, American psychiatrist and author (died 1990)
1895 - León de Greiff, Colombian poet, journalist, and diplomat (died 1976)
1898 - Stephen Vincent Benét, American poet, short story writer, and novelist (died 1943)
1899 - Sobhuza II of Swaziland (died 1982)
1908 - Amy Vanderbilt, American author (died 1974)
1909 - Licia Albanese, Italian-American soprano and actress (died 2014)
1909 - Dorino Serafini, Italian race car driver (died 2000)
1913 - Gorni Kramer, Italian bassist, songwriter, and bandleader (died 1995)
1915 - Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah, Indian-Pakistani politician and diplomat (died 2000)
1916 - Gino Bianco, Brazilian race car driver (died 1984)
1916 - Marcel Cerdan, French boxer (died 1949)
1921 - William V. Roth Jr., American lawyer and politician (died 2003)
1922 - Alan Stephenson Boyd, American businessman and politician, 1st United States Secretary of Transportation
1923 - Mukesh, Indian singer and actor (died 1976)
1923 - Bob Dole, American soldier, lawyer, and politician
1923 - César Fernández Ardavín, Spanish director, producer, and screenwriter (died 2012)
1923 - The Fabulous Moolah, American wrestler (died 2007)
1924 - Margaret Whiting, American singer (died 2011)
1925 - Jack Matthews, American author, playwright, and academic (died 2013)
1925 - Joseph Sargent, American actor, director, and producer (died 2014)
1926 - Bryan Forbes, English actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (died 2013)
1926 - Wolfgang Iser, German scholar, literary theorist (died 2007)
1927 - Johan Ferner, Norwegian sailor (died 2015)
1927 - Pierre Granier-Deferre, French director and screenwriter (died 2007)
1928 - Orson Bean, American actor
1928 - Jimmy Hill, English footballer, manager, and sportscaster (died 2015)
1929 - John Barber, English race car driver
1929 - Leonid Stolovich, Russian-Estonian philosopher and academic (died 2013)
1929 - Neil Welliver, American painter (died 2005)
1931 - Leo Labine, Canadian ice hockey player (died 2005)
1932 - Oscar de la Renta, Dominican-American fashion designer (died 2014)
1932 - Tom Robbins, American novelist
1934 - Junior Cook, American saxophonist (died 1992)
1934 - Louise Fletcher, American actress
1935 - Tom Cartwright, English-Welsh cricketer and coach (died 2007)
1936 - Don Patterson, American organist (died 1988)
1936 - Harold Rhodes, English cricketer
1937 - Chuck Jackson, American singer-songwriter (The Del-Vikings)
1937 - Yasuhiro Kojima, Japanese-American wrestler and manager (died 1999)
1937 - Vasant Ranjane, Indian cricketer (died 2011)
1938 - Terence Stamp, English actor
1939 - Gila Almagor, Israeli actress and author
1940 - Judith Walzer Leavitt, American historian and academic
1940 - Alex Trebek, Canadian-American game show host and producer
1941 - Estelle Bennett, American singer (The Ronettes) (died 2009)
1941 - George Clinton, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actor (Parliament-Funkadelic)
1941 - David M. Kennedy, American historian and author
1941 - Ron Turcotte, Canadian jockey
1942 - Michael Abney-Hastings, 14th Earl of Loudoun, English-Australian politician (died 2012)
1942 - Peter Habeler, Austrian mountaineer and skier
1942 - Les Johns, Australian rugby player and coach
1943 - Masaru Emoto, Japanese author and activist (died 2014)
1943 - Kay Bailey Hutchison, American lawyer and politician
1943 - Bobby Sherman, American singer-songwriter and actor
1944 - Rick Davies, English singer-songwriter and keyboard player (Supertramp)
1944 - Sparky Lyle, American baseball player and manager
1944 - Anand Satyanand, New Zealand lawyer, judge, and politician, 19th Governor-General of New Zealand
1945 - Philip Cohen, English biochemist and academic
1946 - Danny Glover, American actor, director, and producer
1946 - Mireille Mathieu, French singer
1946 - Paul Schrader, American director and screenwriter
1946 - Paul-Loup Sulitzer, French financier and author
1946 - Rolando Joven Tria Tirona, Filipino archbishop
1946 - Johnson Toribiong, Palauan lawyer and politician, 7th President of Palau
1947 - Albert Brooks, American actor, director, and screenwriter
1947 - Gilles Duceppe, Canadian politician
1947 - Don Henley, American singer-songwriter and drummer (The Eagles)
1948 - S. E. Hinton, American author
1948 - Otto Waalkes, German actor, singer, director, and screenwriter
1949 - Alan Menken, American pianist and composer
1949 - Lasse Virén, Finnish runner and police officer
1951 - Richard Bennett, American guitarist and producer (The Notorious Cherry Bombs)
1951 - Patriarch Daniel of Romania
1953 - Sylvia Chang, Taiwanese actress, singer, director, and screenwriter
1953 - Brian Howe, English singer-songwriter (Bad Company)
1954 - Al Di Meola, American guitarist, songwriter, and producer (Return to Forever)
1954 - Steve LaTourette, American lawyer and politician
1954 - Pierre Lebeau, Canadian actor
1954 - Lonette McKee, American actress and singer
1955 - Richard J. Corman, American businessman, founded the R.J. Corman Railroad Group (died 2013)
1955 - Willem Dafoe, American actor
1956 - Mick Pointer, English drummer (Marillion and Arena)
1956 - Scott Sanderson, American baseball player and sportscaster
1957 - Álvaro Corcuera, Mexican priest (died 2014)
1957 - Dave Stieb, American baseball player
1958 - Tatsunori Hara, Japanese baseball player and coach
1958 - David Von Erich, American wrestler (died 1984)
1960 - Barbara Cassani, American businesswoman
1960 - Jon Oliva, American singer-songwriter and keyboard player (Savatage, Trans-Siberian Orchestra, and Jon Oliva's Pain)
1961 - Calvin Fish, English race car driver and sportscaster
1961 - Keith Sweat, American singer-songwriter and producer (LSG)
1962 - Alvin Robertson, American basketball player
1962 - Martine St. Clair, Canadian singer and actress
1963 - Emilio Butragueño, Spanish footballer
1963 - Emily Saliers, American singer-songwriter and musician (Indigo Girls)
1964 - Bonnie Langford, English actress and dancer
1964 - John Leguizamo, Colombian-American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1964 - David Spade, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1964 - Teruyoshi Uchimura, Japanese comedian
1965 - Derrick Dalley, Canadian educator and politician
1965 - Shawn Michaels, American wrestler, trainer, and actor
1965 - Richard born Poore, New Zealand humanitarian
1965 - Doug Riesenberg, American football player and coach
1966 - Tim Brown, American football player and manager
1967 - Lauren Booth, English journalist and activist
1968 - Rhys Ifans, Welsh actor and singer (Super Furry Animals)
1969 - Despina Vandi, German-Greek singer and actress
1970 - Jason Becker, American guitarist and songwriter (Cacophony)
1970 - Steve Carter, Australian rugby player
1970 - Devendra Fadnavis, Indian lawyer and politician, 18th Chief Minister of Maharashtra
1970 - Sergei Zubov, Russian ice hockey player and coach
1971 - Kristine Lilly, American soccer player
1972 - Colin Ferguson, Canadian actor, director, and producer
1972 - Seth Fisher, American illustrator (died 2006)
1972 - Keyshawn Johnson, American football player and sportscaster
1973 - Brian Chippendale, American singer and drummer (Lightning Bolt and Mindflayer)
1973 - Ronald Ray Howard, American murderer (died 2005)
1973 - Daniel Jones, English-Australian guitarist, songwriter, and producer (Savage Garden)
1973 - Petey Pablo, American rapper and actor
1973 - Mike Sweeney, American baseball player and sportscaster
1973 - Ece Temelkuran, Turkish journalist and author
1973 - Rufus Wainwright, American-Canadian singer-songwriter
1974 - Franka Potente, German actress
1977 - Ezio Galon, Italian rugby player
1977 - Ingo Hertzsch, German footballer
1977 - Gustavo Nery, Brazilian footballer
1978 - A. J. Cook, Canadian actress
1978 - Martyn Lee, English radio host and producer
1978 - Runako Morton, Nevisian cricketer (died 2012)
1978 - Dennis Rommedahl, Danish footballer
1979 - Lucas Luhr, German race car driver
1979 - Yadel Martí, Cuban baseball player
1980 - Tablo, South Korean-Canadian rapper, producer, and actor (Epik High)
1980 - Scott Dixon, New Zealand race car driver
1980 - Dirk Kuyt, Dutch footballer
1980 - Kate Ryan, Belgian singer-songwriter
1981 - Fandango, American wrestler
1983 - Aldo de Nigris, Mexican footballer
1983 - Dries Devenyns, Belgian cyclist
1983 - Nikos Ganos, Greek singer and model
1983 - Steven Jackson, American football player
1983 - Andreas Ulvo, Norwegian pianist (Eple Trio)
1984 - Stewart Downing, English footballer
1985 - Jessica Abbott, Australian swimmer
1985 - Takudzwa Ngwenya, Zimbabwean-American rugby player
1985 - Akira Tozawa, Japanese wrestler
1986 - Steve Johnson, American football player
1986 - Haruka Suenaga, Japanese actress and model
1987 - Ilja Glebov, Estonian figure skater
1987 - Charlotte Kalla, Swedish skier
1988 - Paul Coutts, Scottish footballer
1988 - Thomas Kraft, German footballer
1988 - Sercan Temizyürek, Turkish footballer
1989 - Keegan Allen, American actor, photographer and musician
1989 - Baltasar Breki Samper, Icelandic actor
1991 - Matty James, English footballer
1992 - Anja Aguilar, Filipino actress and singer
1992 - Selena Gomez, American actress and singer (Selena Gomez and the Scene)
2002 - Prince Felix of Denmark
2013 - Prince George of Cambridge
Deaths1362 - Louis, Count of Gravina (born 1324)
1387 - Frans Ackerman, Flemish politician (born 1330)
1461 - Charles VII of France (born 1403)
1525 - Richard Wingfield, English courtier and diplomat, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (born 1426)
1540 - John Zápolya, Hungarian king (born 1487)
1619 - Lawrence of Brindisi, Italian priest and saint (born 1559)
1633 - Trijntje Keever, Dutch giant (born 1616)
1645 - Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares (born 1587)
1676 - Pope Clement X (born 1590)
1726 - Hugh Drysdale, English-American politician, Colonial Governor of Virginia
1734 - Peter King, 1st Baron King, English lawyer and politician, Lord Chancellor of England (born 1669)
1789 - Joseph Foullon de Doué, French politician, Controller-General of Finances (born 1715)
1802 - Marie François Xavier Bichat, French anatomist and physiologist (born 1771)
1824 - Thomas Macnamara Russell, English admiral
1826 - Giuseppe Piazzi, Italian mathematician and astronomer (born 1746)
1832 - Napoleon II, French emperor (born 1811)
1833 - Joseph Forlenze, Italian ophthalmologist and surgeon (born 1757)
1864 - James born McPherson, American general (born 1828)
1869 - John A. Roebling, German-American engineer, designed the Brooklyn Bridge (born 1806)
1903 - Cassius Marcellus Clay, American publisher, lawyer, and politician, United States Ambassador to Russia (born 1810)
1904 - Wilson Barrett, English actor and playwright (born 1846)
1906 - William Snodgrass, Canadian minister and academic (born 1827)
1908 - Randal Cremer, English politician, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1828)
1915 - Sandford Fleming, Scottish-Canadian engineer and inventor, developed Standard time (born 1827)
1916 - James Whitcomb Riley, American poet and author (born 1849)
1918 - Indra Lal Roy, Indian lieutenant and pilot (born 1898)
1920 - William Kissam Vanderbilt, American businessman and horse breeder (born 1849)
1922 - Jokichi Takamine, Japanese-American chemist and academic (born 1854)
1932 - J. Meade Falkner, English author and poet (born 1858)
1932 - Reginald Fessenden, Canadian inventor and academic (born 1866)
1932 - Errico Malatesta, Italian activist and author (born 1853)
1932 - Flo Ziegfeld, American actor and producer (born 1867)
1934 - John Dillinger, American gangster (born 1903)
1937 - Ted McDonald, Australian cricketer and footballer (born 1891)
1940 - Albert Young, American boxer and promoter (born 1877)
1950 - William Lyon Mackenzie King, Canadian economist and politician, 10th Prime Minister of Canada (born 1874)
1958 - Mikhail Zoshchenko, Ukrainian-Russian soldier and author (born 1895)
1967 - Carl Sandburg, American journalist and author (born 1878)
1968 - Giovannino Guareschi, Italian journalist and cartoonist (born 1908)
1970 - George Johnston, Australian journalist and author (born 1912)
1974 - Wayne Morse, American lawyer and politician (born 1900)
1979 - J. V. Cain, American football player (born 1951)
1979 - Sándor Kocsis, Hungarian footballer and manager (born 1929)
1986 - Floyd Gottfredson, American author and illustrator (born 1905)
1986 - Ede Staal, Dutch singer-songwriter (born 1941)
1987 - Fahrettin Kerim Gökay, Turkish physician and politician, Turkish Minister of Health (born 1900)
1990 - Manuel Puig, Argentinian author, playwright, and screenwriter (born 1932)
1992 - Wayne McLaren, American actor and stuntman (born 1940)
1992 - David Wojnarowicz, American painter, photographer, and activist (born 1954)
1995 - Harold Larwood, English-Australian cricketer (born 1904)
1996 - Rob Collins, English keyboard player (The Charlatans) (born 1956)
1998 - Rolf Botvid, Swedish actor and screenwriter (born 1915)
1998 - Fritz Buchloh, German footballer and coach (born 1909)
2000 - Eric Christmas, English-born American and Canadian actor (born 1916)
2000 - Carmen Martín Gaite, Spanish author, poet, and playwright (born 1925)
2000 - Raymond Lemieux, Canadian chemist and academic (born 1920)
2000 - Claude Sautet, French director and screenwriter (born 1924)
2001 - Indro Montanelli, Italian journalist and historian (born 1909)
2003 - Qusay Hussein, Iraqi soldier and politician (born 1966)
2003 - Uday Hussein, Iraqi commander (born 1964)
2003 - Wahome Mutahi, Kenyan journalist (born 1954)
2004 - Sacha Distel, French singer and guitarist (born 1933)
2004 - Illinois Jacquet, American saxophonist and composer (born 1922)
2005 - Eugene Record, American singer-songwriter and producer (The Chi-Lites) (born 1940)
2006 - José Antonio Delgado, Venezuelan mountaineer (born 1965)
2007 - Mike Coolbaugh, American baseball player and coach (born 1972)
2007 - Jarrod Cunningham, New Zealand rugby player (born 1968)
2007 - László Kovács, Hungarian-American director and cinematographer (born 1933)
2007 - Rollie Stiles, American baseball player (born 1906)
2008 - Estelle Getty, American actress (born 1923)
2009 - Richard M. Givan, American lawyer and judge (born 1921)
2009 - Peter Krieg, German director, producer, and screenwriter (born 1947)
2010 - Kenny Guinn, American banker and politician, 27th Governor of Nevada (born 1936)
2011 - Linda Christian, Mexican-American actress (born 1923)
2011 - Cees de Wolf, Dutch footballer (born 1945)
2011 - Tom Aldredge, American film, television, and stage actor (born 1928)
2012 - Ding Guangen, Chinese engineer and politician (born 1929)
2012 - George Armitage Miller, American psychologist and academic (born 1920)
2012 - Frank Pierson, American director and screenwriter (born 1925)
2013 - Natalie de Blois, American architect, co-designed the Lever House (born 1921)
2013 - Dennis Farina, American actor (born 1944)
2013 - Lawrie Reilly, Scottish footballer (born 1928)
2013 - Rosalie E. Wahl, American lawyer and judge (born 1924)
2014 - Johann Breyer, German SS officer (born 1925)
2014 - Louis Lentin, Irish director and producer (born 1933)
2014 - Nitzan Shirazi, Israeli footballer and manager (born 1971)