|On This Day|
Today is 18 July 2018, and this is some of what happened.
Events390 BC - Roman-Gaulish Wars: Battle of the Allia: A Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, leading to the subsequent sacking of Rome.
64 - The Great Fire of Rome causes widespread devastation and rages on for six days, destroying half of the city.
362 - Roman/Persian Wars: Emperor Julian arrives at Antioch with a Roman expeditionary force (60,000 men) and stays there for nine months to launch a campaign against the Persian Empire.
452 - Sack of Aquileia: After an earlier defeat on the Catalaunian Plains, Attila lays siege to the metropolis of Aquileia and eventually destroys it.
645 - Chinese forces under general Li Shiji besiege the strategic fortress city of Anshi (Liaoning) during the Goguryeo Tang War.
1195 - Battle of Alarcos: Almohad forces defeat the Castilian army of Alfonso VIII and force its retreat to Toledo.
1290 - King Edward I of England issues the Edict of Expulsion, banishing all Jews (numbering about 16,000) from England; this was Tisha B'Av on the Hebrew calendar, a day that commemorates many Jewish calamities.
1334 - The bishop of Florence blesses the first foundation stone for the new campanile (bell tower) of the Florence Cathedral, designed by the artist Giotto di Bondone.
1342 - Mu'izz al-Din Husayn defeats the Sarbadars in the Battle of Zava.
1389 - France and England agree to the Truce of Leulinghem, inaugurating a 13-year peace, the longest period of sustained peace during the Hundred Years' War.
1391 - Tokhtamysh/Timur war: Battle of the Kondurcha River: Timur defeats Tokhtamysh of the Golden Horde in present-day southeast Russia.
1555 - The College of Arms is reincorporated by Royal charter signed by Queen Mary I of England and King Philip II of Spain.
1812 - The Treaties of Orebro end both the Anglo-Russian and Anglo-Swedish Wars.
1841 - Coronation of Emperor Pedro II of Brazil.
1857 - Louis Faidherbe, French governor of Senegal, arrives to relieve French forces at Kayes, effectively ending El Hajj Umar Tall's war against the French.
1862 - First ascent of Dent Blanche, one of the highest summits in the Alps.
1863 - American Civil War: Second Battle of Fort Wagner: One of the first formal African American military units, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, supported by several white regiments, attempts an unsuccessful assault on Confederate-held Battery Wagner.
1870 - The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility.
1914 - The U.S. Congress forms the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, giving official status to aircraft within the U.S. Army for the first time.
1925 - Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto Mein Kampf.
1942 - World War II: The Germans test fly the Messerschmitt Me 262 using its jet engines for the first time.
1966 - Human spaceflight: Gemini 10 is launched from Cape Kennedy on a 70-hour mission that includes docking with an orbiting Agena target vehicle.
1968 - Intel is founded in Mountain View, California.
1969 - After a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Senator Ted Kennedy from Massachusetts drives his car off a bridge and his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, dies.
1982 - Two hundred sixty-eight campesinos ("peasants" or "country people") are slain in the Plan de Sánchez massacre in Ríos Montt's Guatemala.
1984 - McDonald's massacre in San Ysidro, California: In a fast-food restaurant, James Oliver Huberty opens fire, killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before being shot dead by police.
1984 - The dismembered body of Swedish prostitute Catrine da Costa is found in Stockholm, the findings later led to a trial that ended in a mistrial for two accused doctors.
1986 - A tornado is broadcast live on KARE television in Minnesota when the station's helicopter pilot makes a chance encounter.
1992 - The ten victims of the La Cantuta massacre disappear from their university in Lima.
1994 - The bombing of the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Jewish Community Center) in Buenos Aires kills 85 people (mostly Jewish) and injures 300.
1994 - Rwandan genocide: The Rwandan Patriotic Front takes control of Gisenyi and north western Rwanda, forcing the interim government into Zaire and ending the genocide.
1995 - On the Caribbean island of Montserrat, the Soufrière Hills volcano erupts. Over the course of several years, it devastates the island, destroying the capital and forcing most of the population to flee.
1995 - Dreaming of You by Selena, is released posthumously, became the best-selling Latin album in the United States.
1996 - Storms provoke severe flooding on the Saguenay River, beginning one of Quebec's costliest natural disasters ever.
1996 - Battle of Mullaitivu: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam capture the Sri Lanka Army's base, killing over 1200 soldiers.
2012 - At least seven people are killed and 32 others are injured after a bomb explodes on an Israeli tour bus at Burgas Airport, Bulgaria.
2013 - The Government of Detroit, with up to $20 billion in debt, files for the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history.
Births1439 - John V, Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg (died 1507)
1501 - Isabella of Austria (died 1526)
1504 - Heinrich Bullinger, Swiss pastor and reformer (died 1575)
1552 - Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor (died 1612)
1634 - Johannes Camphuys, Dutch politician, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (died 1695)
1659 - Hyacinthe Rigaud, French painter (died 1743)
1670 - Giovanni Bononcini, Italian cellist and composer (died 1747)
1718 - Saverio Bettinelli, Italian poet, playwright, and critic (died 1808)
1720 - Gilbert White, English ornithologist and ecologist (died 1793)
1724 - Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria (died 1780)
1797 - Immanuel Hermann Fichte, German philosopher and academic (died 1879)
1811 - William Makepeace Thackeray, English author and poet (died 1863)
1818 - Louis Gerhard De Geer, Swedish lawyer and politician, 1st Prime Minister of Sweden (died 1896)
1821 - Pauline Viardot, French soprano and composer (died 1910)
1837 - Vasil Levski, Bulgarian priest and activist (died 1873)
1845 - Tristan Corbière, French poet (died 1875)
1848 - W. G. Grace, English cricketer and physician (died 1915)
1853 - Hendrik Lorentz, Dutch physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (died 1928)
1864 - Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden, English politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer (died 1937)
1867 - Margaret Brown, American philanthropist and activist (died 1932)
1871 - Sada Yacco, Japanese actress and dancer (died 1946)
1881 - Larry McLean, Canadian-American baseball player (died 1921)
1884 - Alberto di Jorio, Italian cardinal (died 1979)
1886 - Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., American general (died 1945)
1887 - Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian military officer and politician, Minister President of Norway (died 1945)
1890 - Frank Forde, Australian educator and politician, 15th Prime Minister of Australia (died 1983)
1892 - Arthur Friedenreich, Brazilian footballer (died 1969)
1893 - David Ogilvy, 12th Earl of Airlie, Scottish peer, soldier and courtier (died 1968)
1895 - Olga Spessivtseva, Russian-American ballerina (died 1991)
1895 - Machine Gun Kelly, American gangster (died 1954)
1897 - Ernest Eldridge, English race car driver and engineer (died 1935)
1898 - John Stuart, Scottish-English actor (died 1979)
1899 - Ernst Scheller, German soldier and politician, 8th Mayor of Marburg (died 1942)
1900 - Nathalie Sarraute, French lawyer and author (died 1999)
1902 - Jessamyn West, American author (died 1984)
1903 - Chill Wills, American actor and singer (died 1978)
1906 - S. I. Hayakawa, Canadian-American academic and politician (died 1992)
1906 - Clifford Odets, American director, playwright, and screenwriter (died 1963)
1908 - Peace Pilgrim, American mystic and activist (died 1981)
1908 - Lupe Vélez, Mexican-American actress and dancer (died 1944)
1909 - Bishnu Dey, Indian poet, critic, and academic (died 1982)
1909 - Andrei Gromyko, Belarusian-Russian economist and politician, Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs (died 1989)
1909 - Mohammed Daoud Khan, Afghan commander and politician, 1st President of Afghanistan (died 1978)
1909 - Harriet Nelson, American singer and actress (died 1994)
1910 - Diptendu Pramanick, Indian businessman (died 1989)
1911 - Hume Cronyn, Canadian-American actor, producer, and screenwriter (died 2003)
1913 - Red Skelton, American actor and comedian (died 1997)
1914 - Gino Bartali, Italian cyclist (died 2000)
1917 - Henri Salvador, French singer and guitarist (died 2008)
1918 - Nelson Mandela, South African lawyer and politician, 1st President of South Africa, Nobel Prize laureate (died 2013)
1920 - Eric Brandon, English race car driver and businessman (died 1982)
1921 - Peter Austin, English brewer, founded Ringwood Brewery (died 2014)
1921 - Aaron T. Beck, American psychiatrist and academic
1921 - John Glenn, American colonel, astronaut, and politician
1921 - Richard Leacock, English-French director and producer (died 2011)
1922 - Thomas Kuhn, American physicist, historian, and philosopher (died 1996)
1923 - Jerome H. Lemelson, American engineer and businessman (died 1997)
1924 - Inge Sørensen, Danish swimmer (died 2011)
1925 - Shirley Strickland, Australian runner and hurdler (died 2004)
1925 - Friedrich Zimmermann, German lawyer and politician, German Federal Minister of the Interior (died 2012)
1926 - Margaret Laurence, Canadian author and academic (died 1987)
1927 - Kurt Masur, German conductor and educator (died 2015)
1928 - Andrea Gallo, Italian priest and author (died 2013)
1928 - Franca Rame, Italian actress and playwright (died 2013)
1929 - Dick Button, American figure skater and actor
1929 - Screamin' Jay Hawkins, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actor (died 2000)
1930 - Burt Kwouk, English actor (died 2016)
1932 - Robert Ellis Miller, American director and screenwriter
1932 - Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Russian poet and playwright
1933 - Jean Yanne, French actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (died 2003)
1934 - Edward Bond, English director, playwright, and screenwriter
1934 - Darlene Conley, American actress (died 2007)
1934 - Roger Reynolds, American composer and educator
1935 - Tenley Albright, American figure skater and physician
1935 - Jayendra Saraswathi, Indian guru, 69th Shankaracharya
1937 - Roald Hoffmann, Polish chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
1937 - Hunter S. Thompson, American journalist and author (died 2005)
1938 - John Connelly, English footballer (died 2012)
1938 - Lennart Hjulström, Swedish actor and director
1938 - Ian Stewart, Scottish keyboard player and manager (The Rolling Stones and Rocket 88) (died 1985)
1938 - Paul Verhoeven, Dutch director, producer, and screenwriter
1939 - Brian Auger, English keyboard player (Brian Auger and the Trinity, CAB, and The Steampacket)
1939 - Dion DiMucci, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Dion and the Belmonts)
1939 - Jerry Moore, American football player and coach
1940 - James Brolin, American actor, director, and producer
1940 - Joe Torre, American baseball player and manager
1941 - Frank Farian, German songwriter and producer
1941 - Lonnie Mack, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (died 2016)
1941 - Martha Reeves, American singer, actress, and politician (Martha and the Vandellas and The Fascinations)
1942 - Giacinto Facchetti, Italian footballer (died 2006)
1942 - Adolf Ogi, Swiss politician, 84th President of the Swiss Confederation
1943 - Joseph J. Ellis, American historian and author
1944 - David Hemery, English hurdler and author
1945 - Pat Doherty, Irish republican politician
1946 - Leo Madder, Belgian actor and director
1946 - John Naughton, Scottish-Irish journalist, author, and academic
1947 - Steve Forbes, American publisher and politician
1948 - Carlos Colón Sr., Puerto Rican-American wrestler and promoter
1948 - Jeanne Córdova, American journalist and activist (died 2016)
1948 - Hartmut Michel, German biochemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate
1949 - Dennis Lillee, Australian cricketer and coach
1950 - Richard Branson, English businessman, founded Virgin Group
1950 - Jack Dongarra, American computer scientist and academic
1950 - Kostas Eleftherakis, Greek footballer
1950 - Glenn Hughes, American singer, dancer, and actor (Village People) (died 2001)
1950 - Jack Layton, Canadian political scientist, academic, and politician (died 2011)
1950 - Mark Udall, American educator and politician
1951 - Elio Di Rupo, Belgian chemist, academic, and politician, 68th Prime Minister of Belgium
1951 - Margo Martindale, American actress
1954 - Peter Crane, English-American botanist and academic
1954 - Ricky Skaggs, American singer-songwriter, mandolin player, and producer (New South)
1955 - Terry Chambers, English drummer (XTC and Dragon)
1955 - Bernd Fasching, Austrian painter and sculptor
1956 - Razor Shines, American baseball player, manager, and coach
1957 - Nick Faldo, English golfer and sportscaster
1957 - Keith Levene, English guitarist, songwriter, and producer (Public Image Ltd, The Flowers of Romance, and The Clash)
1957 - Alexander Titov, Russian bass player (Aquarium and Kino)
1958 - Chris Ruane, Welsh educator and politician
1960 - Simon Heffer, English journalist and author
1960 - Anne-Marie Johnson, American actress
1961 - M.J. Alexander, American author and photographer
1961 - Elizabeth McGovern, American actress
1961 - Alan Pardew, English footballer and manager
1961 - Pasi Rautiainen, Finnish footballer, coach, and manager
1961 - Krustyo Lafazanov, Bulgarian actor
1962 - Lee Arenberg, American actor and screenwriter
1962 - Jensen Buchanan, American actress
1962 - Jack Irons, American drummer (Spinnerette, What Is This?, The Wallflowers, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Pearl Jam, and Eleven)
1962 - Shaun Micallef, Australian comedian, actor, producer, and screenwriter
1963 - Marc Girardelli, Austrian-Luxembourgian skier
1963 - Mike Greenwell, American baseball player and race car driver
1963 - Al Snow, American wrestler, sportscaster, and actor
1963 - Martín Torrijos, Panamanian economist and politician, 35th President of Panama
1964 - Wendy Williams, American talk show host, actress, and author
1965 - Jim Bob Duggar, American real estate agent and politician
1965 - Vesselina Kasarova, Bulgarian soprano
1965 - Steve Webb, English academic and politician
1966 - Dan O'Brien, American decathlete and coach
1967 - Vin Diesel, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter
1968 - Grant Bowler, New Zealand-Australian actor
1968 - Alex Désert, American actor and singer (Hepcat)
1968 - Scott Gourley, Australian rugby player
1969 - Elizabeth Gilbert, American author
1969 - The Great Sasuke, Japanese wrestler and politician
1971 - Penny Hardaway, American basketball player and coach
1971 - Sukhwinder Singh, Indian singer-songwriter and actor
1974 - Alan Morrison, British poet
1975 - Torii Hunter, American baseball player
1975 - Daron Malakian, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
1975 - M.I.A., English rapper and producer
1976 - Valerie Cruz, American actress
1976 - Elsa Pataky, Spanish actress
1977 - Alexander Morozevich, Russian chess player and author
1977 - Kelly Reilly, English actress and producer
1977 - Alfian Sa'at, Singaporean poet and playwright
1978 - Adabel Guerrero, Argentinian actress, singer, and dancer
1978 - Shane Horgan, Irish rugby player and sportscaster
1978 - Ben Sheets, American baseball player and coach
1978 - Mélissa Theuriau, French journalist
1979 - Deion Branch, American football player
1979 - Joey Mercury, American wrestler and producer
1980 - Kristen Bell, American actress, singer, and producer
1981 - Dennis Seidenberg, German ice hockey player
1982 - Ryan Cabrera, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
1982 - Priyanka Chopra, Indian model, actress, and singer, Miss World 2000
1982 - Dominika Luzarová, Czech tennis player
1983 - Carlos Diogo, Uruguayan footballer
1983 - Aaron Gillespie, American singer-songwriter and drummer (Underoath and The Almost)
1983 - Mikk Pahapill, Estonian decathlete
1983 - Jan Schlaudraff, German footballer
1985 - Hopsin, American rapper, producer, and actor
1985 - Chace Crawford, American actor
1985 - Panagiotis Lagos, Greek footballer
1986 - Natalia Mikhailova, Russian ice dancer
1987 - Tontowi Ahmad, Indonesian badminton player
1988 - Änis Ben-Hatira, German-Tunisian footballer
1988 - César Villaluz, Mexican footballer
1989 - Jamie Benn, Canadian ice hockey player
1989 - Sebastian Mielitz, German footballer
1989 - Yohan Mollo, French footballer
1991 - Karina Pasian, American singer and pianist
1993 - Lee Taemin, Maknae of the South Korean boy band SHINee
Deaths707 - Emperor Monmu of Japan (born 683)
715 - Muhammad bin Qasim, Umayyad general (born 695)
912 - Zhu Wen, Chinese emperor (born 852)
1100 - Godfrey of Bouillon, Frankish knight (born 1016)
1300 - Gerard Segarelli, Italian religious leader, founded the Apostolic Brethren (born 1240)
1566 - Bartolomé de las Casas, Spanish bishop and historian (born 1484)
1591 - Jacobus Gallus, Slovenian composer (born 1550)
1608 - Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg (born 1546)
1610 - Caravaggio, Italian painter (born 1573)
1639 - Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, German general (born 1604)
1695 - Johannes Camphuys, Dutch politician, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies (born 1634)
1698 - Johann Heinrich Heidegger, Swiss theologian and author (born 1633)
1721 - Jean-Antoine Watteau, French painter (born 1684)
1730 - François de Neufville, duc de Villeroy, French general (born 1644)
1756 - Pieter Langendijk, Dutch poet and playwright (born 1683)
1792 - John Paul Jones, Scottish-American admiral and diplomat (born 1747)
1817 - Jane Austen, English novelist (born 1775)
1837 - Vincenzo Borg, Maltese merchant and rebel leader (born 1777)
1863 - Robert Gould Shaw, American colonel (born 1837)
1872 - Benito Juárez, Mexican lawyer and politician, 26th President of Mexico (born 1806)
1884 - Ferdinand von Hochstetter, Austrian geologist and academic (born 1829)
1890 - Lydia Becker, English journalist, author, and activist, co-founded the Women's Suffrage Journal (born 1827)
1892 - Thomas Cook, English travel agent, founded the Thomas Cook Group (born 1808)
1899 - Horatio Alger, American novelist and journalist (born 1832)
1916 - Benjamin C. Truman, American journalist and author (born 1835)
1918 - Princess Elisabeth of Hesse and by Rhine (born 1864)
1925 - Louis-Nazaire Bégin, Canadian cardinal (born 1840)
1932 - Jean Jules Jusserand, French author and diplomat, French Ambassador to the United States (born 1855)
1937 - Julian Bell, English poet and academic (born 1908)
1938 - Marie of Romania (born 1875)
1944 - Thomas Sturge Moore, English author, poet, and playwright (born 1870)
1947 - Evald Tipner, Estonian footballer and ice hockey player (born 1906)
1948 - Herman Gummerus, Finnish historian, academic, and politician (born 1877)
1950 - Carl Clinton Van Doren, American author and critic (born 1885)
1952 - Jack Earle, American actor (born 1906)
1952 - Paul Saintenoy, Belgian architect and historian (born 1862)
1953 - Lucy Booth, English-Swedish daughter of William and Catherine Booth (born 1868)
1953 - Sigfred Johansen, Danish actor (born 1908)
1954 - Machine Gun Kelly, American gangster (born 1895)
1966 - Bobby Fuller, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Bobby Fuller Four) (born 1942)
1968 - Corneille Heymans, Belgian physiologist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (born 1892)
1969 - Mary Jo Kopechne, American educator and secretary (born 1940)
1973 - Jack Hawkins, English actor and producer (born 1910)
1982 - Lionel Daunais, Canadian singer-songwriter (born 1902)
1982 - Roman Jakobson, Russian/American linguist and theorist (born 1896)
1984 - Lally Bowers English actress and singer (born 1914)
1984 - Grigori Kromanov, Estonian director and screenwriter (born 1926)
1985 - Shahnawaz Bhutto, Pakistani son of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (born 1958)
1985 - Louisa Ghijs, Belgian-German actress (born 1902)
1988 - Nico, German singer-songwriter, keyboard player, and actress (born 1938)
1988 - Joly Braga Santos, Portuguese composer and conductor (born 1924)
1989 - Donnie Moore, American baseball player (born 1954)
1990 - Karl Menninger, American psychiatrist and author (born 1896)
1990 - Yun Posun, South Korean politician, 2nd President of South Korea (born 1897)
1990 - Johnny Wayne, Canadian actor and screenwriter (born 1918)
1995 - Fabio Casartelli, Italian cyclist (born 1970)
1997 - Eugene Merle Shoemaker, American geologist and astronomer (born 1928)
1999 - Meir Ariel, Israeli singer-songwriter (born 1942)
2001 - Mimi Fariña, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (born 1945)
2001 - James Hatfield, American author (born 1958)
2002 - Metin Toker, Turkish journalist and author (born 1924)
2004 - André Castelot, Belgian-French historian and author (born 1911)
2004 - Paul Foot, Israeli-English journalist and author (born 1937)
2004 - Émile Peynaud, French wine maker (born 1912)
2005 - Bill Hicke, Canadian ice hockey player, coach, and manager (born 1938)
2005 - William Westmoreland, American general (born 1914)
2007 - Jerry Hadley, American tenor (born 1952)
2007 - John Kronus, American wrestler (born 1969)
2007 - Kenji Miyamoto, Japanese politician (born 1908)
2009 - Henry Allingham, English soldier (born 1896)
2009 - Jill Balcon, English actress (born 1925)
2011 - Georgess McHargue, American author and poet (born 1941)
2012 - Yosef Shalom Eliashiv, Lithuanian-Israeli rabbi and author (born 1910)
2012 - Jean François-Poncet, French politician and diplomat, French Minister of Foreign Affairs (born 1928)
2012 - Rajesh Khanna, Indian actor, producer, politician (born 1942)
2012 - Jack Matthews, Welsh rugby player and physician (born 1920)
2012 - Dawoud Rajiha, Syrian general and politician, Syrian Minister of Defense (born 1947)
2012 - Assef Shawkat, Syrian general and politician (born 1950)
2012 - Hasan Turkmani, Syrian general and politician, Syrian Minister of Defense (born 1935)
2013 - Vaali, Indian poet, songwriter, and actor (born 1931)
2013 - Olivier Ameisen, French-American cardiologist and academic (born 1953)
2014 - Andreas Biermann, German footballer (born 1980)
2014 - João Ubaldo Ribeiro, Brazilian journalist, author, and academic (born 1941)
2014 - Dietmar Schönherr, Austrian-Spanish actor, director, and screenwriter (born 1926)
2015 - Alex Rocco, American actor (born 1936)